Prof S. Murty Srinivasula
Professor (Biology)
  +91 (0)471 - 2778171


  1. Publications

    Book Chapters:

    1. Fujita, K and Srinivasula SM. (2009). Ubiquitination and Death-receptor signaling. Death Receptors and Cognate Ligands in Cancer. Results Probl Cell Differ, SpringerLinks Publisher. 49: 87-114.
    2. Srinivasula SM, Saleh A, Ahmad M, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES. (2001). Isolation and Assay of Caspases. Ch. 1. Methods in Cell Biol. 66:1-27.

    Scientific Journals:

    1. Gan X, Wang J, Wang C, Sommer E, Kozasa T, Srinivasula S, Alessi D, Offermanns S, Simon MI, Wu D. (2012). PRR5L degradation promotes mTORC2-mediated PKC-δ phosphorylation and cell migration downstream of Gα (12). Nat. Cell Biol (in press).
    2. Srinivasula SM and Ashwell JD. (2011). A20: More than one way skin a cat. Mol. Cell, 44: 511-512.
    3. Fujita K and Srinivasula SM. (2011). TLR4-mediated autophagy in macrophages is a p62-dependent type of selective autophagy of aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS). Autophagy, 7: 29-31.
    4. Fujita K, Xiao Q, Maeda D and Srinivasula SM. (2011). Nrf2-mediated induction of p62 controls TLR4-driven ALIS formation and autophagic degradation, Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA, 108: 1427-32.
    5. Shukla S, Fujita K, Xiao Q, and Srinivasula SM. (2011). A shear stress responsive gene product PP1201 protects against Fas-mediated apoptosis by reducing Fas expression on the cell surface. Apoptosis, 16: 162-173.
    6. Samali A, Fulda S, Gorman AM, Hori O, Srinivasula SM. (2010). Cell stress and cell death. Int J Cell Biol. 2010: 1-2.
    7. Liao, W, Fujita K, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Yang W, Gunsor, M, Garfield S, Goldsmith, P. El-Deiry WS, Schutze S, and Srinivasula SM. (2009). CARP1 Regulates Induction of NF-kB by TNF-a. Current Biology. 19: R17-R19
    8. Srinivasula, SM, and Ashwell, JD (2008). IAPs: What’s in a name? Mol Cell. 30: 123-35.
    9. Liao, W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, Wincovitch S, Garfield S, Schutze S, El-Deiry WS, and Srinivasula SM. (2008). CARP-2 is an endosome-associated ubiquitin ligase for RIP and regulates TNF-induced NF-?B activation. Current Biology (article). 18: 641-9.
    10. Ma X, Kalakonda S, Srinivasula SM, Reddy SP, Platanias LC and Kalvakolanu DV. (2007). GRIM-19 associates with the serine protease HtrA2 for promoting cell death. Oncogene. 26: 4842–49.
    11. Wu, CJ, Conze, DB, Li, T, Srinivasula, SM, and Ashwell, JD (2006). NEMO is a sensor of Lys 63-linked polyubiquitination and functions in NF-kappaB activation. Nat Cell Biol. 8: 398-406.
    12. Chao Y, Shiozaki1 EN, Srinivasula SM, Rigotti DJ, Fairman R, and Shi Y. (2005). Engineering a Dimeric Caspase-9: A Re-evaluation of the Induced Proximity Model for Caspase Activation. PLoS Biology. 3: e183.
    13. Yanamandra N, Kondraganti S, Srinivasula SM, Gujrati M, Olivero WC, Dinh DH, Rao JS. (2004). Activation of caspase-9 with irradiation inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in SNB19 human glioma cells. Oncogene. 23: 2339-46.
    14. Gupta S, Singh R, Datta P, Zhang Z, Orr C, Lu Z, Dubois G, Zervos AS, Meisler MH, Srinivasula SM, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES. (2004). The C-terminal tail of presenilin regulates Omi/HtrA2 protease activity. J Biol Chem. 279: 45844-54.
    15. Saleh M, Vaillancourt JP, Graham RK, Huyck M, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Steinberg MH, Nolan V, Baldwin CT, Hotchkiss RS, Buchman TG, Zehnbauer BA, Hayden MR, Farrer LA, Roy S, Nicholson DW (2004). Differential modulation of endotoxin responsiveness by human caspase-12 polymorphisms. Nature. 429: 75-9.
    16. Maianski NA, Geissler J, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Roos D, Kuijpers TW. (2004). Functional characterization of mitochondria in neutrophils: a role restricted to apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 11: 143-53.
    17. Srinivasula SM, Jones JM., Datta P., Ji W., Gupta S., Zhang Z., Davies E., Hajnóczky G., Saunders TL., Van Keuren ML., Alnemri T., Meisler ML and Alnemri ES. (2003). Loss ofOmi/HtrA2 protease activity causes the neuromuscular disorder of mnd2 mutant mice. Nature. 425: 721-727.
    18. Srinivasula SM, Gupta S, Datta P, Zhang Z, Hegde R, Cheong N, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES. (2003). Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins are substrates for the mitochondrial serine protease Omi/HtrA2. J Biol Chem. 278: 31469-72.
    19. Hegde R, Srinivasula SM, Datta P, Madesh M, Wassell R, Zhang Z, Cheong N, Nejmeh J, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Hoshino SI, Alnemri ES. (2003). The polypeptide chain releasing factor GSPT1/eRF3 is proteolytically processed into an IAP-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 278: 38699-706.
    20. Kandasamy K, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Thompson CB, Korsmeyer SJ, Bryant JL, Srivastava RK. (2003). Involvement of proapoptotic molecules Bax and Bak in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis: differential regulation of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release. Cancer Res. 63:1712-21.
    21. Zeuner A, Eramo A, Testa U, Felli N, Pelosi E, Mariani G, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Condorelli G, Peschle C, De Maria R. (2003). Control of erythroid cell production via caspase-mediated cleavage of transcription factor SCL/Tal-1. Cell Death Differ. 10: 905-13.
    22. Giampietri C, Petrungaro S, Coluccia P, D'Alessio A, Starace D, Riccioli A, Padula F, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri E, Palombi F, Filippini A, Ziparo E, De Cesaris P. (2003). FLIP is expressed in mouse testis and protects germ cells from apoptosis. Cell Death Differ.10:175-84.
    23. Shiozaki EN, Chai J, Rigotti DJ, Riedl SJ, Li P, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Fairman R, and Shi Y. (2003). Mechanism of XIAP-Mediated Inhibition of Caspase-9. Molecular Cell, 11: 519-527.
    24. Jia L, Patwari Y, Kelsey SM, Srinivasula SM, Agrawal SG, Alnemri ES, Newland AC. (2003). Role of Smac in human leukaemic cell apoptosis and proliferation. Oncogene, 22: 1589-99.
    25. Chang DW, Ditsworth D, Liu H, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Yang X. (2003). Oligomerization is a general mechanism for the activation of initiator and inflammatory procaspases. J Biol Chem. 278: 16466-9.
    26. Cilenti L, Lee Y, Hess S, Srinivasula S, Park KM, Junqueira D, Davis H, Bonventre JV, Alnemri ES, Zervos AS. (2003). Characterization of a novel and specific inhibitor for the pro-apoptotic protease Omi/HtrA2. J Biol Chem. 278: 11489-94.
    27. Srinivasula SM, Datta P, Kobayashi M, Wu J-W, Fujioka M, Hegde R, Zhang Z, Mukattash, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Shi Y, Jaynes JB, Alnemri ES. (2002). Sickle, a novel Drosophila death gene in the reaper/hid/grim region encodes an IAP-inhibitory protein. Curr Biol. 12: 125-30.
    28. Srinivasula SM, Hegde R, Zhang Z, Wassel R, Mukattash R, Cilenti L, Dubois G, Lazebnik Y, Zervos AS, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, (2002). Identification of Omi/HtrA2 as A Mitochondrial Apoptotic Serine Protease that Disrupts IAP-Caspase Interaction. J Biol Chem. 277: 432-38.
    29. Srinivasula SM, Zhan Y, Hegde R, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, (2002). Death effector domain-containing proteins DEDD and Flame-3 form nuclear complexes with the TFIIIC102 subunit of human transcription factor IIIC. Cell Death Differ. 9: 439-47.
    30. Li W, Srinivasula SM, Chai J, Li P, Wu J-W, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES, Shi Y, (2002). Structure of the Mitochondrial Serine Protease HtrA2/Omi: Implications for its Pro-apoptotic Function. Nature Stuctural Biology 9: 436-41.
    31. Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES, (2002). The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor for caspase-1. J Biol Chem. 277: 21119-22.
    32. Guo Y, Srinivasula SM, Druilhe A, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, (2002). Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing proapoptotic proteins from mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 277: 13430-7.
    33. Razmara M, Srinivasula SM, Wang L, Poyet JL, Geddes BJ, DiStefano PS, Bertin J, Alnemri ES, (2002). CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 277: 13952-8.
    34. Van Loo G, van Gurp M, Depuydt B, Srinivasula SM, Rodriguez I, Alnemri ES, Gevaert K, Vandekerckhove J, Declercq W, Vandenabeele P, (2002). The serine protease Omi/HtrA2 is released from mitochondria during apoptosis. Omi interacts with caspase inhibitor XIAP and induces enhanced caspase activity. Cell Death Differ. 9: 20-26.
    35. Madesh M, Antonsson B, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Hajnoczky G, (2002). Rapid kinetics of tBid-induced cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release and mitochondrial depolarization. J Biol Chem. 277: 5651-9.
    36. Pistritto G, Jost M, Srinivasula SM, Baffa R, Poyet JL, Kari C, Rodeck C and Emad S. Alnemri, (2002). Expression and transcriptional regulation of caspase-14 in simple and complex epithelia. Cell Death Differ. 9: 995-1006.
    37. Srinivasula SM, Hegde R, Saleh A, Datta P, Shiozaki E, Chai J, Lee RA., Robbins PD, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Shi Y., Alnemri ES. (2001). A conserved XIAP-interaction motif in caspase-9 and Smac/Diablo regulates caspase activity and apoptosis. Nature. 410: 112-16.
    38. Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Alnemri ES. (2001). vCLAP, a caspase-recruitment Domain-containing Protein of Equine Herpesvirus-2, Persistently Activates the Ikappa B Kinases through Oligomerization of IKK gamma. J Biol Chem. 276: 3183-7.
    39. Chai J, Shiozaki E, Srinivasula SM, Wu Q, Datta P, Alnemri ES, Shi Y, (2001). Structural Basis of Caspase-7 Inhibition by XIAP. Cell. 104: 769-80.
    40. Chai J, Wu Q, Shiozaki E, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Shi Y, (2001). Crystal Structure of a Procaspase-7 Zymogen: Mechanisms of activation and substrate binding. Cell. 107: 399-407.
    41. Bratton SB, Walker G, Srinivasula SM, Sun XM, Butterworth M, Alnemri ES, Cohen GM. (2001). Recruitment, activation and retention of caspases-9 and –3 by Apaf-1 apoptosome and associated XIAP complexes. EMBO J. 20: 998-1009.
    42. Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Tnani M, Razmara M, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, (2001). Identification of Ipaf, a human caspase-1-activating protein related to Apaf-1. J Biol Chem. 276: 28309-13.
    43. Druilhe A, Srinivasula SM, Razmara M, Ahmad M, Alnemri ES, (2001). Regulation of IL-1beta generation by Pseudo-ICE and ICEBERG, two dominant negative caspase recruitment domain proteins. Cell Death Differ. 8: 649-57.
    44. Jia L, Srinivasula SM, Liu FT, Newland AC, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Kelsey SM, (2001). Apaf-1 protein deficiency confers resistance to cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis in human leukemic cells. Blood. 98: 414-21.
    45. Partheniou F, Kelsey SM, Srinivasula SM, Newland AC, Alnemri ES, Jia L, (2001). c-Iap1 blocks tnfalpha-mediated cytotoxicity upstream of caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial events in human leukemic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 287:181-9.
    46. Jia L, Patwari Y, Srinivasula SM, Newland AC, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Kelsey SM, (2001). Bax translocation is crucial for the sensitivity of leukaemic cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Oncogene. 20:4817-26.
    47. Komata T, Kondo Y, Kanzawa T, Hirohata S, Koga S, Sumiyoshi H, Srinivasula SM, Barna BP, Germano IM, Takakura M, Inoue M, Alnemri ES, Shay JW, Kyo S, Kondo S, (2001). Treatment of malignant glioma cells with the transfer of constitutively active caspase-6 using the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) gene promoter. Cancer Res. 61: 5796-802.
    48. Kulik G, Carson JP, Vomastek T, Overman K, Gooch BD, Srinivasula S, Alnemri E, Nunez G, Weber MJ. (2001). Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces BID cleavage and bypasses antiapoptotic signals in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Cancer Res. 61: 2713-9.
    49. Condorelli F, Salomoni P, Cotteret S, Cesi V, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Calabretta B. (2001). Caspase cleavage enhances the apoptosis-inducing effects of BAD. Mol Cell Biol. 21: 3025-36.
    50. Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Merriam S, DiStefano PS, Alnemri ES. (2001). CARD11 and CARD14 Are Novel Caspase Recruitment Domain (CARD)/Membrane-associated Guanylate Kinase (MAGUK) Family Members that Interact with BCL10 and Activate NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 276: 11877-82.
    51. Patriotis C, Russeva MG, Lin JH, Srinivasula SM, Markova DZ, Tsatsanis C, Makris A, Alnemri ES, Tsichlis PN. (2001). Tpl-2 induces apoptosis by promoting the assembly of protein complexes that contain caspase-9, the adapter protein Tvl-1, and procaspase-3. J Cell Physiol.187: 176-87.
    52. Srinivasula SM, Saleh A, Balkir L, Robbins PD, and Alnemri ES. (2000). Negative regulation of the Apaf-1 apoptosome by Hsp70. Nature Cell Biol 2: 476-483.
    53. Srinivasula SM, Datta P, Fan XJ, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Huang Z, and Alnemri ES. (2000). Molecular Determinants of the Caspase-promoting Activity of Smac/DIABLO and its Role in the Death Receptor Pathway. J Biol Chem. 275: 36152-7.
    54. Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Lin J, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Yamaoka S, Tsichlis PN, and Alnemri ES. (2000). Activation of I kappa}B kinases by RIP Via IKK {gamma}/NEMO-Mediated Oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 275: 37966-77.
    55. Bertin J, Guo Y, Wang L, Srinivasula SM, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Merriam S, Du MQ, Dyer MJ, Robison KE, DiStefano PS, Alnemri ES. (2000). CARD 9 is a novel caspase-recruitment domain-containing protein that interacts with BCL10/CLAP and activates NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 275: 41082-6.
    56. Pandey P, Saleh A, Nakazawa A, Kumar S, Srinivasula SM, Kumar V, Weichselbaum R, Nalin C, Alnemri ES, Kufe D, and Kharbanda S. (2000). Negative regulation of cytochrome c-mediated oligomerization of Apaf-1 and activation of procaspase-9 by heat shock protein 90. Embo J. 19: 4310-4322.
    57. Wang JL, Liu D, Zhang ZJ, Shan S, Han X, Srinivasula SM, Croce CM, Alnemri ES, and Huang Z. (2000). Structure-based discovery of an organic compound that binds Bcl-2 protein and induces apoptosis of tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U S A. 97: 7124-9.
    58. Truneh A, Sharma S, Silverman C, Khandekar S, Reddy MP, Deen KC, McLaughlin MM, Srinivasula SM, Livi GP, Marshall LA, Alnemri ES, Williams WV, and Doyle ML. (2000). Temperature-sensitive differential affinity of TRAIL for its receptors. DR5 is the highest affinity receptor. J Biol Chem. 275: 23319-25.
    59. Kolla V, Chakravorty M, Pandey B, Srinivasula SM, Mukherjee A, and Litwack G. (2000). Synthesis of a bacteriophage MB78 late protein by novel ribosomal frameshifting. Gene 254, 209-217.
    60. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Lin JH, Poyet JL, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Tsichlis PN, Alnemri ES, (1999). CLAP, a novel caspase recruitment domain-containing protein in the tumor necrosis factor receptor pathway, regulates NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 274: 17946-54.
    61. Srinivasula SM, Saleh A, Acharya S, Fishel R, Alnemri ES (1999). Cytochrome c and dATP-mediated oligomerization of Apaf-1 is a prerequisite for procaspase-9 activation. J Biol Chem 274: 17941-5.
    62. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Guo Y, Zhan Y, Lazebnik Y, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, (1999). Regulation of apoptosis by an endogenous dominant-negative short isoform of caspase 9. Cancer Research. 59: 999-1002.
    63. Qin H, Srinivasula SM, Wu G, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES, Shi Y. (1999) Structural basis of procaspase-9 recruitment by the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1. Nature, 399: 549-57.
    64. Kang JJ, Schaber MD, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Litwack G, Hall DJ, Bjornsti MA (1999). Cascades of mammalian caspase activation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 274: 3189-3198.
    65. De Maria R, Zeuner A, Eramo A, Domenichelli C, Bonci D, Grignani F, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Testa U. and Peschle C. (1999). Caspases downregulate Erythropoiesis through cleavage of the transcription factor GATA-1. Nature, 401, 489-493.
    66. Reiss K, Yumet G, Shan S, Huang Z, Alnemri E, Srinivasula SM, Wang JY, Morrione A, Baserga R (1999). Synthetic peptide sequence from the C-terminus of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor that induces apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth. J Cell Physiol. 181: 124-35.
    67. Chen W, Wang HG, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Cooper NR. (1999). B cell apoptosis triggered by antigen receptor ligation proceeds via a novel caspase-dependent pathway. J Immunol 163: 2483-91.
    68. Mesner PW Jr, Bible KC, Martins LM, Kottke TJ, Srinivasula SM, Svingen PA, Chilcote TJ, Basi GS, Tung JS, Krajewski S, Reed JC, Alnemri ES, Earnshaw WC, Kaufmann SH (1999). Characterization of caspase processing and activation in HL-60 cell cytosol under cell-free conditions. Nucleotide requirement and inhibitor profile. J Biol Chem, 274: 22635-45.
    69. Srinivasula SM., Ahmad M., Fernandes-Alnemri T., Alnemri ES., (1998). Autoactivation of Procaspase-9 by APAF-1-Mediated Oligomerization. Mol. Cell. 1: 949-957.
    70. Srinivasula SM., Ahmad M., Hegde R., Mukattash R., Fernandes-Alnemri T., Alnemri ES., (1998). Identification and characterization of murine Caspase-14, a new member of caspase family. Cancer Research. 58: 5201-5205.
    71. Srinivasula SM., Ahmad M., MacFarlane M., Luo Z, Huang Z., Fernandes-Alnemri T., Alnemri ES., (1998). Generation of constitutively active recombinant caspases-3 and -6 by rearrangement of their subunits. J Biol Chem. 273 : 10107-10111.
    72. Hegde R., Srinivasula SM., Ahmad M., Fernandes-Alnemri T., Alnemri ES., (1998). Blk, a BH3-containing mouse protein that interacts with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is a potent death agonist. J Biol Chem. 273: 7783-7786.
    73. Deveraux QL, Roy N, Stennicke HR, Van Arsdale T, Zhou Q, Srinivasula SM, Alnemri ES, Salvesen GS, Reed JC,(1998). IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases. EMBO J. 17: 2215-2223.
    74. Murty SS, Pandey B, and Chakravorty M, (1998). Mapping of additional restriction enzyme cleavage sites on bacteriophage MB78 genome. J. Biosci., 23: 151-154.
    75. Li P, Nijhawan D, Budihardjo I, Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Alnemri E, and Wang X. (1997). Cytochrome c and dATP dependent formation of Apaf-1/ Caspase-9 complex triggers an apoptotic protease cascade. Cell; 91: 479-489.
    76. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, MacFarlane M, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Cohen G, and Alnemri E. (1997). Identification and molecular cloning of two novel receptors for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL. J. Biol. Chem. (Communication) 272: 25417-25420.
    77. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Ottilie S, Bullrich F, Banks S, Wang Y, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Croce CM, Litwack G, Tomaselli K, Armstrong R, and Alnemri ES. (1997). FLAME-1, a novel FADD like anti-apoptotic molecule that regulates Fas/TNFR1-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. (Communication) 272: 18542-18545.
    78. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M,Wang L, Litwack G, Fernandes-Alnemri T. and Alnemri ES. (1997), CRADD, a novel human apoptotic adaptor molecule for caspase-2 and FasL/TNF receptor-interacting protein RIP. Cancer Research.57, 615-619.
    79. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Wang L, Litwack G, Fernandes-Alnemri T. and Alnemri ES. (1997). Spodoptera frugiperda caspase-1, a novel insect death protease that cleaves the nuclear immunophilin FKBP46, is the target of the baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35. J. Biol. Chem. (Communication), 272:1421-1425.
    80. Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G. and Alnemri ES. (1996). Molecular ordering of the Fas-apoptotic pathway: The Fas/APO-1 protease Mch5 is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that activates multiple Ced-3 /ICE-like cysteine proteases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93. 14486-14491.
    81. Srinivasula SM, Alnemri T-F, Zangrilli J, Robertson N, Armstrong RC, Wang L, Trapani JA, Tomaselli KJ, Litwack G. and Alnemri ES. (1996), The Ced-3/ Interleukin 1 converting enzyme-like homolog Mch6 and the Lamin-cleaving enzyme Mch2 are substrates for the apoptotic mediator CPP32. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 27099-27106.
    82. Alnemri T-F, Armstrong RC, Krebs J, Srinivasula SM, Wang L, Bullrich F, Fritz LC, Trapani JA,Tomaselli KJ, Litwack G. and Alnemri ES. (1996), In vitro activation of CPP32 and Mch3 by Mch4, a novel human apoptotic cysteine protease containing two FADD-like domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 7464-7469.
    83. Roy RK, Murty S S, and Chakravorty M. (1995), Construction of a suitable vector from a naturally occurring plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. Plasmid, 34, 144-147.
    84. Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, and Srinivasula SM. (1995), Structural modification of serum vitamin D binding protein and immunosupression in AIDS patients. AIDS Res. Hum. Ret. 11,1373-1378.
    85. Khan SA, Murty S S, and Chakravorty M. (1995), Exclusion of temperate bacteriophage P22 by virulent bacteriophage MB78 of Salmonella typhimurium-competition for association with the replication complex. Ind. J. Biochem. & Biophy. 32, 368-371.
    86. Khan SA, Murty S S, Zargar MA, and Chakravorty M. (1991), Replication, maturation and physical mapping of bacteriophage MB78 genome. J. Biosci. 16, 161-175.